为什么美丽的东西让我们快乐?

最后更新于:2020 八月 15日 , 星期六 , 00:18 凌晨

出处:Why beautiful things make us happy - YouTube 可能需要上网工具。

中文字幕

美存在于许多事物中
景观,面容,艺术,建筑,星空。
或只是在阳光下闪耀的空瓶子。
美,是无形的。 它仅是作为一种愉快的感觉存在于我们的脑海。
如果我们去定义它, 如若某个事物的颜色,形状,构成,或比例对我们有吸引力或令我们感到愉快。
我们就将其视为是美的。
美,是数百万年来我们一直拥有的人类特有的体验。
就连我们的最早的工具也被修整为对称的形状。
我们的祖先会耗费时间把他们的工具打造得好看, 研究人员曾试图找到其实用性的原因, 但实际上任何的(猜想)并没能得到证实。
看来也许早期人类把他们的工具打造成水滴状, 仅仅是因为那样更好看。
纵观我们的历史,“美”的定义改变了很多。
理念已有所改变,甚至变得与完全相反。
但在个人审美和时代潮流之外, 有些东西并不会真的过时。
从古至今的艺术和建筑文化中都蕴含着 黄金分割、对称、分形艺术。
对于事物的美, 人类似乎有种神秘的,与生俱来的共识。
那些不断涌现(于脑海)的图样, 都扎根于自然。
他们成了我们生物学的一部分, 因为他们帮助我们的祖先生存了下来。
比如说分形图,广泛存在于自然中。
蜗牛壳、头状花序、波浪、云朵
正确的识别和评价这些事物和现象, 曾经是关乎生存的。
那云朵是意味着要下雨么? 那片水域能安全的游泳吗? 这个能吃不?
另一个无处不在的是对称。
在自然中这意味着一切本应如此。
茎、叶、花和树木都对称的生长。
一只有着骄人鹿角的鹿, 可能是营养的肉源。
一株畸形的小麦可能不能吃
一张对称的面孔更可能属于一个 健康,生育力强的伴侣。
由于对称在动物界和植物界都很常见, 我们的大脑对 对称 极其熟悉。
这让我们的祖先们评价环境变得更简单, 能更快的对危险做出反应。
有助于我们生存的事物, 激活了我们大脑中的奖励中心。
识别到安全和营养的信号, 就会触发我们的好感。
所以我们的审美可能是由图案识别进化来的, 只是现在已经进化的远远超过那样了。
人类似乎进化出了一种深深扎根于我们内心的, 对美的直觉。
甚至我们大脑的其他进程都停止工作, 它依然存在着。
阿尔茨海默症患者们被邀为几组画作的美评分
然后实验在两周后重复
患者们早已忘记了之前的画作, 但他们对画作的评分顺序依旧没变。
也许有人会争辩这并不能说明什么。 如果说人们都只是坚持个人偏好呢?
但其他研究显示, 当面对美时, 我们有着一种最基本的共同特征。
在不同的实验中,人们被邀辨别真假抽象画。
有的是蒙德里安(Mondrian)和波洛克(Pollock) 基于严格的构成规则的真迹,譬如说分形图案规则。 而仿品则没有依照这些规则。
多数人认出了真迹。
尽管两个艺术家的艺术风格天差地别, 作品却是来自他们两人。
里还有一个实验也是用了抽象艺术作品, 但这次是要人们从很相似的画作中挑出 哪张是小孩画的,哪张是动物画的。
被测者们指出了精心计划过的图案所组成的真正画作, 而不像那些随机的图案。
所以虽然我们难以确定美是什么或美是基于什么的, 但当我们看到美的时候我们可以辨认出来。
今天人类在应对自然时不再活过一日算一日。
我们离开了自然世界,并创造了我们自己的世界。
我们制造了我们周围的一切, 我们所穿,所用,所视。
当我们遍布全球,数量剧增的时候, 我们创造了一个完全人造的世界。
在这个创世的过程中, 我们常常因为要发挥功能性,提升效率, 而忽视了美。
我们建起一排又一排混凝土居住楼, 却没人愿意入住。
我们有着丑陋的地铁站,破旧的社区中心,还有(在郊区)漫延的大卖场。
一个接一个无趣的标准化水泥方块。
人类, 并不喜欢千篇一律。
眼动追踪软件显示, 当人们从空白的墙面旁快速驶过时, 会把注意力放在建筑的装饰和细节上。
它们不仅看起来没什么意思,而且实际是让我们可悲。
借助皮肤传感器的实验显示, 注视广阔而单调的外墙会让我们感到无聊和难受。
这种无聊与心率和压力水平升高有关,反之亦然。
在过去几十年里,越来越多的研究发现, 美学层面上令人愉悦的环境 可以改善行为和生活,
认知功能和情绪。
我们的身体和大脑对周围的一切都有显而易见的反应。
使有用的东西变美实际上也是使它们变得更好。 就这一点来说, 美确实对我们的幸福有着非常强烈的影响。
2017年,一家医院通过观察和采访患者, 测试了影响康复的因素, 结果发现
一般来说,当病房区有视觉艺术品时, 会让患者们待在那更舒服快乐。
另一项研究则调查了 在一家有两间不同病房的医院, 其中患者的康复状况。
一间病房又破旧又难看,另一间刚翻新装修过。
令研究人员惊讶的是, 翻新病房中的患者需要的止痛药更少。
而且比起在旧病房治疗的病人, 平均提前两天出院。
更美的环境让他们身心愉悦。
美对我们的日常生活也而有影响。
它可以提升我们的幸福感。
一项 “关于影响成年人幸福感的主要因素” 的研究, 结果出人意料。
除了家庭和睦中、健康状况等因素, 个人的幸福感还会受到 你所居住城市的美丽程度的影响。
对美的评判甚至超过清洁度或安全性。
所以从这一切中,我们究竟明白了什么。
我们知道了,人类经过数百万年的微调, 可以处理视觉输入并评估周围环境。
那正是我们生而在做的事, 并且我们开始更多地了解 美作为一种财富,对我们有多大影响。
美,结合了我们对有意义信息的内在需求。
也许在这个人造世界中, 美值得拥有更大的舞台。

英文字幕

A lot of things can be beautiful.
Landscapes, faces, fine art, or epic architecture; stars in the sky.
Or simply the reflection of the sun on an empty bottle.
Beauty is nothing tangible, it only exists in our heads as a pleasant feeling.
If we have to define it, we perceive something as beautiful if its color, shape, form, or proportion
somehow are appealing or delightful to us.
Beauty is a very human experience that’s been with us for millions of years.
Even our first tools were trimmed to a symmetrical shape.
Researchers have tried to find practical reasons why our ancestors invested the time to make their tools look nice, but couldn’t really identify any.
It seems that early humans shaped their tools into teardrops, simply because they liked them better that way.
Throughout our history, the definition of beauty has changed a lot.
Ideals have shifted or turned into their opposites.
But beyond individual and contemporary tastes some things have never really gone out of fashion.
The golden ratio, symmetry, or fractal patterns can be found in the art and architecture of cultures from our beginnings, to today.
Humans seem to be in mysterious, inherent agreement about the beauty of certain things.
The patterns that keep coming up are all rooted in nature.
They became part of our biology because they helped our ancestors survive.
Fractal patterns for example, occur all over nature.
In snail shells, flower heads; waves or clouds
Identifying and assessing these things and phenomena correctly used to be vital.
Do those clouds mean rain will come soon? Are these waters safe to swim through? Can I eat this?
Another pervasive thing is symmetry.
In nature it means everything is as it should be
Stems and trees and leaves and blossoms all grow symmetrically
A deer with impressive antlers is probably a source of nutritious meat.
A deformed wheat hair may not be safe to eat.
A symmetrical face is more likely to belong to a healthy and fertile mating partner.
Because symmetry is so common in fauna and flora, it’s extremely familiar to our brain.
It helped our ancestors evaluate their environment more easily, and react quickly to danger.
Things that helped us survive activate the reward center in our brain.
recognising signals of safety and nutrition, triggered nice feelings in us.
So our sense of beauty probably evolved from pattern recognition, but it goes way beyond that now.
Humans seem to have evolved an instinct for beauty that is deeply hardwired into us.
It remain even after other processes in our brain stop working.
Alzheimer’s patients were asked to rank the beauty of several paintings
Then the experiment was repeated two weeks later
The patients have long since forgotten the paintings, but still ranked the beauty of the paintings in the same order.
One could argue that this doesn’t say much. So what if people stick to their personal preferences?
But other research has shown that we have a sort of lowest common denominator when it comes to beauty.
In different experiments, people were asked to distinguish real from fake abstract paintings.
Some were originals by Mondrian and Pollock that were painted based on strict rules like fractal patterns, while the imitations were not.
The majority picked out the original artworks.
This worked for paintings from both artists, even though their arts are very different.
Another experiment also used abstract artworks but, asked people to pick them out among similar paintings made either by children or animals.
Again, the test subjects pointed out the legit paintings whose patterns were carefully planned and not random
So while we have a hard time pinning down what beauty is or what it’s based on, we somehow recognize it when we see it
Humans don’t navigate nature trying to survive day by day anymore
We left the natural world behind and created our own.
We made the objects that surround us the things we wear and use and look at.
As we spread over the planet and our numbers grew, we shaped a completely man-made environment.
In the process of doing so, we often neglected beauty in favor of functionality cost or efficiency.
We built rows and rows of concrete housing blocks that nobody wants to live in.
We have ugly underground subway stations, shabby public service buildings, and sprawling malls.
One bland, standardized box beside the next.
Humans, don’t like monotony.
Eye tracking software has shown that people keep focusing on details and ornaments of architecture while brushing quickly over blank walls
And not only are they no fun to look at, they actually make us miserable.
Experiments with skin sensors showed that looking at vast, dull facades makes us feel bored and uncomfortable.
This kind of boredom has been linked to raised heart rates and stress levels and the opposite seems to be true, too.
Over the last decades more and more studies have found that surroundings that are actually aesthetically pleasing to us can improve our well-being, our behavior,
cognitive function, and mood.
Our bodies and brains react measurably and visibly to everything that surrounds us
Beauty in particular has such a strong impact on our well-being that making useful things beautiful can actually make them better.
In 2017, a hospital examined recovery factors through observation and interviews with patients and found that visual art in their lounge areas
made them more comfortable and happier about their stay in general.
Another study looked at how well patients recovered in a hospital that had two wards.
A very old and rather ugly one, and a newly renovated ward.
To the researchers’ surprise, the patients that stayed in the new, renovated environment, needed less pain medication
and were released on average, two days earlier than patients recovering in the old ward.
More beautiful surroundings made them feel better, physically.
Beauty also has an effect on us on a daily basis.
It can improve our general happiness.
A study that looked at the main factors influencing the happiness of adults revealed an unexpected result.
Besides things like good health in a harmonious family life, individual happiness is affected by how beautiful you find the city you live in.
Beauty scored even higher than cleanliness or safety.
So what can we learn from all of this?
We know that we humans have been fine-tuned for millions of years to process visual input and assess our surroundings.
It’s just what we’re programmed to do and we’re starting to learn more about how much beauty as a property is really influencing us.
Beauty meets an inherent need for meaningful information.
Maybe it would be worth giving it more space in this man-made world we have created.


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