最后更新于：2020 八月 15日 , 星期六 , 00:18 凌晨
出处：Why beautiful things make us happy - YouTube 可能需要上网工具。
我们的祖先会耗费时间把他们的工具打造得好看， 研究人员曾试图找到其实用性的原因， 但实际上任何的（猜想）并没能得到证实。
那云朵是意味着要下雨么？ 那片水域能安全的游泳吗？ 这个能吃不？
由于对称在动物界和植物界都很常见， 我们的大脑对 对称 极其熟悉。
但其他研究显示， 当面对美时， 我们有着一种最基本的共同特征。
有的是蒙德里安（Mondrian）和波洛克（Pollock） 基于严格的构成规则的真迹，譬如说分形图案规则。 而仿品则没有依照这些规则。
里还有一个实验也是用了抽象艺术作品， 但这次是要人们从很相似的画作中挑出 哪张是小孩画的，哪张是动物画的。
在这个创世的过程中， 我们常常因为要发挥功能性，提升效率， 而忽视了美。
眼动追踪软件显示， 当人们从空白的墙面旁快速驶过时， 会把注意力放在建筑的装饰和细节上。
在过去几十年里，越来越多的研究发现， 美学层面上令人愉悦的环境 可以改善行为和生活，
使有用的东西变美实际上也是使它们变得更好。 就这一点来说， 美确实对我们的幸福有着非常强烈的影响。
2017年，一家医院通过观察和采访患者， 测试了影响康复的因素， 结果发现
另一项研究则调查了 在一家有两间不同病房的医院， 其中患者的康复状况。
一项 “关于影响成年人幸福感的主要因素” 的研究， 结果出人意料。
除了家庭和睦中、健康状况等因素， 个人的幸福感还会受到 你所居住城市的美丽程度的影响。
那正是我们生而在做的事， 并且我们开始更多地了解 美作为一种财富，对我们有多大影响。
A lot of things can be beautiful.
Landscapes, faces, fine art, or epic architecture; stars in the sky.
Or simply the reflection of the sun on an empty bottle.
Beauty is nothing tangible, it only exists in our heads as a pleasant feeling.
If we have to define it, we perceive something as beautiful if its color, shape, form, or proportion
somehow are appealing or delightful to us.
Beauty is a very human experience that’s been with us for millions of years.
Even our first tools were trimmed to a symmetrical shape.
Researchers have tried to find practical reasons why our ancestors invested the time to make their tools look nice, but couldn’t really identify any.
It seems that early humans shaped their tools into teardrops, simply because they liked them better that way.
Throughout our history, the definition of beauty has changed a lot.
Ideals have shifted or turned into their opposites.
But beyond individual and contemporary tastes some things have never really gone out of fashion.
The golden ratio, symmetry, or fractal patterns can be found in the art and architecture of cultures from our beginnings, to today.
Humans seem to be in mysterious, inherent agreement about the beauty of certain things.
The patterns that keep coming up are all rooted in nature.
They became part of our biology because they helped our ancestors survive.
Fractal patterns for example, occur all over nature.
In snail shells, flower heads; waves or clouds
Identifying and assessing these things and phenomena correctly used to be vital.
Do those clouds mean rain will come soon? Are these waters safe to swim through? Can I eat this?
Another pervasive thing is symmetry.
In nature it means everything is as it should be
Stems and trees and leaves and blossoms all grow symmetrically
A deer with impressive antlers is probably a source of nutritious meat.
A deformed wheat hair may not be safe to eat.
A symmetrical face is more likely to belong to a healthy and fertile mating partner.
Because symmetry is so common in fauna and flora, it’s extremely familiar to our brain.
It helped our ancestors evaluate their environment more easily, and react quickly to danger.
Things that helped us survive activate the reward center in our brain.
recognising signals of safety and nutrition, triggered nice feelings in us.
So our sense of beauty probably evolved from pattern recognition, but it goes way beyond that now.
Humans seem to have evolved an instinct for beauty that is deeply hardwired into us.
It remain even after other processes in our brain stop working.
Alzheimer’s patients were asked to rank the beauty of several paintings
Then the experiment was repeated two weeks later
The patients have long since forgotten the paintings, but still ranked the beauty of the paintings in the same order.
One could argue that this doesn’t say much. So what if people stick to their personal preferences?
But other research has shown that we have a sort of lowest common denominator when it comes to beauty.
In different experiments, people were asked to distinguish real from fake abstract paintings.
Some were originals by Mondrian and Pollock that were painted based on strict rules like fractal patterns, while the imitations were not.
The majority picked out the original artworks.
This worked for paintings from both artists, even though their arts are very different.
Another experiment also used abstract artworks but, asked people to pick them out among similar paintings made either by children or animals.
Again, the test subjects pointed out the legit paintings whose patterns were carefully planned and not random
So while we have a hard time pinning down what beauty is or what it’s based on, we somehow recognize it when we see it
Humans don’t navigate nature trying to survive day by day anymore
We left the natural world behind and created our own.
We made the objects that surround us the things we wear and use and look at.
As we spread over the planet and our numbers grew, we shaped a completely man-made environment.
In the process of doing so, we often neglected beauty in favor of functionality cost or efficiency.
We built rows and rows of concrete housing blocks that nobody wants to live in.
We have ugly underground subway stations, shabby public service buildings, and sprawling malls.
One bland, standardized box beside the next.
Humans, don’t like monotony.
Eye tracking software has shown that people keep focusing on details and ornaments of architecture while brushing quickly over blank walls
And not only are they no fun to look at, they actually make us miserable.
Experiments with skin sensors showed that looking at vast, dull facades makes us feel bored and uncomfortable.
This kind of boredom has been linked to raised heart rates and stress levels and the opposite seems to be true, too.
Over the last decades more and more studies have found that surroundings that are actually aesthetically pleasing to us can improve our well-being, our behavior,
cognitive function, and mood.
Our bodies and brains react measurably and visibly to everything that surrounds us
Beauty in particular has such a strong impact on our well-being that making useful things beautiful can actually make them better.
In 2017, a hospital examined recovery factors through observation and interviews with patients and found that visual art in their lounge areas
made them more comfortable and happier about their stay in general.
Another study looked at how well patients recovered in a hospital that had two wards.
A very old and rather ugly one, and a newly renovated ward.
To the researchers’ surprise, the patients that stayed in the new, renovated environment, needed less pain medication
and were released on average, two days earlier than patients recovering in the old ward.
More beautiful surroundings made them feel better, physically.
Beauty also has an effect on us on a daily basis.
It can improve our general happiness.
A study that looked at the main factors influencing the happiness of adults revealed an unexpected result.
Besides things like good health in a harmonious family life, individual happiness is affected by how beautiful you find the city you live in.
Beauty scored even higher than cleanliness or safety.
So what can we learn from all of this?
We know that we humans have been fine-tuned for millions of years to process visual input and assess our surroundings.
It’s just what we’re programmed to do and we’re starting to learn more about how much beauty as a property is really influencing us.
Beauty meets an inherent need for meaningful information.
Maybe it would be worth giving it more space in this man-made world we have created.